Excess nutrients – nitrogen and phosphorus – lead to toxic algal blooms and dead zones in our lakes and coastal waters, poor water quality in our rivers and streams, and groundwater contamination. Severe impacts to water quality can be seen in most major U.S. watersheds, notably the Chesapeake Bay, Great Lakes and the Mississippi River Basin/Gulf of Mexico.
Nutrients come from a variety of sources: point sources, that are closely regulated, such as municipal sewage treatment, power plants and industrial facilities; and non-point sources that are subject to much less (if any) regulation, such as storm water runoff and agriculture. Learn more about nutrients on the EPA’s website.
Nine million dairy cows, 80 million beef cattle, 62 million swine and billions of poultry in the U.S. produce more than 100 times more organic waste than humans; but where human waste makes its way to a septic tank or sewage treatment plant, livestock waste is usually spread untreated on the ground for its fertilizer value.
These nutrients often overwhelm the crops’ and surrounding environment’s ability to absorb them and runoff to contaminate local ground- and fresh- water resources, as well as downstream lakes and coastal estuaries. Runoff from livestock waste has been identified as one of the largest sources of excess nutrients in most major watersheds. We have recently realized that the greatest source of nutrients from livestock is from ammonia that volatizes from the waste. This ammonia is highly volatile and redeposits everywhere – forests and fields, rivers and lakes, parking lots and rooftops – where it is picked up in runoff.
According to the US EPA’s National Rivers and Streams Assessment 2008-2009, over 55 percent of our nations rivers and streams are in poor biological health, the most widespread problem being nitrogen and phosphorus. Weed-choked waterways, fish kills, loss of aquatic insects that are a critical part of the food chain, and loss of overall biodiversity are all symptoms of excess nutrients. US EPA considers excess nutrients “one of America’s most widespread, costly and challenging environmental problems”. A 2015 Veolia and International Food and Policy Research report draws a similar conclusion on a global basis.
The Chesapeake Bay is one of the most nutrient-polluted estuaries in the United States, mostly due to nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment runoff from agriculture. The Bay has suffered steep declines of oyster, crab and fish populations, reduced visibility and underwater grasses, and annual dead zones.
The Chesapeake Bay suffering a severe algal bloom near Hampton Roads, Virginia, in August, 2009. (Virginia Pilot)
The Chesapeake is also one of the most closely monitored and studied watersheds in the country. In 2009, after many years of failed voluntary programs, the US EPA implemented watershed-wide regulation (TMDL – total maximum daily load) under Executive Order, requiring substantial reductions of nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment from the six Bay states and Washington, D.C.
Environmental and economic studies of the Chesapeake Bay demonstrate that a successful and affordable nutrient control strategy must address agriculture and livestock waste, as it must in most nutrient-impaired watersheds in the U.S. The strategies and policies now being developed to restore water quality in the Chesapeake Bay will create a model that can be adopted by the more than 30 states facing tremendous costs to reduce excess nutrients.
US EPA calls excess nutrients the greatest water quality problem in the U.S. today. Dead Zones, toxic algal blooms, and contaminated wells and aquifers occur throughout the U.S. and the world with more frequency and scale… read more
Bion has developed and proven its technology platform that provides comprehensive environmental treatment of livestock waste and recovers valuable nutrients, energy and clean water from the waste stream… read more
Local and Downstream Benefits
Treating livestock waste at its source creates dramatic savings in downstream compliance costs and produces local economic and environmental benefits that cannot be achieved through downstream treatment options… read more
New Clean Water Strategy
Escalating clean water costs and declining overall water quality indicate current policies must change. A new strategy based on transparency, accountability and cost-effectiveness has to be implemented… read more